Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless Sensor Network

The name of the network shows that it is a network designed without wires. Wireless Sensor Network is a self-configuring network that uses sensor nodes that works through radio signals to monitor environmental conditions like vibration, sound, pressure, etc. These sensor nodes are also known as motes. These nodes are used to forward data and from the gateway, the data is connected with other networks like wireless Ethernet.

Structure of Wireless Sensor Network
There are different topologies for wireless network communication. We have 3 main structures of wireless sensor network which are as follows:

  • Star Network
  • Mesh Network
  • Hybrid Network

The best among these topologies is Star Network. This network is easy to set up and comparatively less expensive. The most special profit of Star Network is whenever any failure occurs in a cable of a computer then it might get affected. But other networks remain in working condition as the system’s main connection is with the central node.

Application of Wireless Network
Wireless sensor network has made life flexible and easy through their different applications. It is likely to change the way of our lives employing its fast growth. Some applications that are following wireless networks are as follows:

Wireless networks are playing a great role in the military field. Many fields of the military are working through Wireless Systems like in communication, battlefield surveillance, and controlling areas.

In the health department, wireless sensing devices are utilized for the monitoring of disabled ones and also for diagnostic and drug management in hospitals. This networking expansion has also made it easier to observe the doctor’s performance and the patient’s behavior inside hospital premises.

Environmental Sensing
Environmental care has taken massive advantage of these wireless sensors. It allows officials to know about the current situations of the earth and helps them to remain well informed regarding volcanoes, oceans, and glaciers.

Structural Monitoring
Nowadays wireless sensors are used to monitor the infrastructure of the city like flyovers, underpasses, or bridges. This facility allows engineers to oversee the situation without visiting the site.

Structure of Wireless Sensor Node (Motes)
The four basic constituents of the sensor node are the power unit, sensing unit, processing unit, and transceiver. The power unit has the authority to supply electric power to other units of the system. Another component is sensing units which are composed of two other subunits are sensors and analog to digital converters. The basic function of the processing unit is to gather and then process signals and last transfer them to the network. The transceiver is a device that contains a transmitter and a receiver. It enables the user to transmit as well as receive data at high speed.

The modular structure is a preeminent approach to designing wireless sensor nodes. As it provides a versatile platform to look out for the requirements of different applications. The main characteristic of any wireless sensing node is to reduce the consumption of power by the system.

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Communication Structure
The sensor node is mostly scattered in the field of the sensor. Every scattered sensor node has the competencies to gather data and then route data back to sink and end-user. The multi-hop infrastructure put the routed data back to the end-user through the sink. The sink will synchronize with the task manager via the Internet or Satellite.

This type of protocol stack develops power and routing awareness and integrates data with the protocols of networking. The protocol stack will be used to combine both power and routing awareness.

Networking protocol works for data integration. The protocol layer is based upon the layers which include the Application layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Link layer, and Physical layer. Application software is developed via the application layer and the data flow is controlled through the transport layer. The network layer is used to take care of data routing that is sent by the transport layer. Multiplexing of data streams, Media Access Control (MAC), frame detection, and control of error are all done through the data link layer. Sensor node coordinates for task sensing and lesser overall energy consumption through planes.

Security of Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless network security is the procedure of designing, executing, and ensuring a solid wireless computer network. It enhances the security level for a computer wireless network. Also, if we talk about the network security of wireless networks then it is slightly weaker than a wired network.

The best security access network for wireless is WPA2. It is easier to configure and has resilient security.WPA2 utilizes Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which makes it more credible and reliable. Therefore it is a good option for keeping the data in the Hard drives, confidential in a wireless network.

A wireless sensor network is a technology of this modern era that is operated through sensor nodes. These sensors make wireless networks effective. It is a fact that they have been established a few years ago and are now involved in every field of work. Moreover, these wireless networks have made life more calm and proficient. However, it has small issues related to security which will be resolved with time. In last, surely the future belongs to wireless networking.

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